Format: PDF. I can create the curve. Now under Recommended chart, you will see lots of option for different types of charts. Now there is nothing wrong in this kind of grading system. Bell curve system of performance appraisal is a forced ranking system imposed on the employees by the management. Bell curve system of performance appraisal is a forced ranking system imposed on the employees by the management. The bell curve is a well-accepted form of performance appraisal," he adds. By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to our Privacy Policy, Christmas Offer - EXCEL ADVANCED COURSE Learn More, You can download this Bell Curve Excel Template here –, Excel Advanced Training (14 Courses, 23+ Projects), 14 Online Courses | 23 Hands-on Projects | 133+ Hours | Verifiable Certificate of Completion | Lifetime Access, Excel Data Analysis Training (12 Courses, 8+ Projects), Excel for Marketing Training (5 Courses, 13+ Projects). We need to understand two concepts to understand this theory better. For the mean, you can use the AVERAGE function, and for the deviation you can use the STDEV.P function. Now to calculate the normal distribution you need to insert a formula for normal distribution in the next cell of Marks. Here you are at our website, article 12588 (8 Excel Bell Curve Templateei6995) xls published by @Excel Templates Format. How the Bell Curve model hurts performance Right now there is an epidemic of interest in revamping employee performance management processes, and it’s overdue. Some of the reasons cited for this change are: it breeds unhealthy competition, it’s the most hated process by managers and employees alike, it promotes political behaviours like schmoozing, and it does not add value to the overall performance management process. You can do this quickly by using the. But the Bell curve graph of the same example will look different because Marks were not sorted in the Ascending order. Facebook employees face pressure Bell Curve method is used for mapping the performance appraisal of the employees by HR. (You can calculate the mean using the AVERAGE function in Excel and Standard Deviation using the STDEV.P function). Performance Is Determined By Three Factors - Angelfire • Performance is determined by three factors: 1. This value can be calculated using Mean – 3* Standard Deviation (65-3*10)”. Students getting higher marks are on the right side of the curve and students getting low marks are on the left of the curve (with most of the students being in the middle around mean score). Suppose there are 10 students in a class which has got the below marks out of 100. 68.2% of the total data points lie in the range (Mean – Standard Deviation to Mean + Standard Deviation). The standard deviation of the calculated weights is 17.7 and not 10. So as you can see in the graph, it started with 83 and ends with 88. I think the criteria for performance scoring must be fixed/shared for all and across teams - if you are forced to place the team on a bell curve within a team only, then one teams bottom of the curve could be much better that another teams top performer … You can also have these in cells and use the cell references in the formula. At the top of the dialog box, you can see the built-in styles click on the third style. Thank you so much. So when you are working on Sample data, you need to use STDEV.S. I would like to determine a bell curve using performance ratings for our employees. Employees are supposed to be rated on them. And this segregation is based on a relative comparison of the performance of the workforce Format: PDF. It is an appraisal method adopted by companies in the late 90s. Effort: how hard a person works Performance Appraisal Defined c. Forced distribution ranking distributes employee performance according to a bell shaped or normal curve. Bell Curve Appraisal By Ranjita Brahma 1 A bell curve, or more specifically, a Gaussian Distribution, is a symmetric curve that is pronounced in the middle, and tapered off at the edges (it really does look like a bell). Bell curve appraisal 1. Here are the steps to create a bell curve for this dataset: This will give you a bell curve in Excel. Let’s take an example of a class of students that have been scored in an exam. Bell Curve In Performance Appraisal Xls Natural Gas Programs Bibliography Spreadsheet DOE/BC/10003-1 DOE/NV/10249-3 Bureau of Land Management U.S. DOE/METC On The Performance of Noncontinuous Tight Gas Sands Ubani, E.A., Ray, R.M. It is often used during employee performance appraisals or during evaluation in exams (ever heard – “You will be graded on the curve?”). In cases where organizations forced a normal distribution upon a power law distribution, then the impact of the high performers Bell Curve Appraisal By Ranjita Brahma 1 A bell curve, or more specifically, a Gaussian Distribution, is a symmetric curve that is pronounced in the middle, and tapered off at the edges (it really does look like a bell). Just uncheck the. The normal distribution or the ‘bell curve’, most memorably introduced into performance management by GE, has now become an article of faith and an essential and inalienable part of performance management systems. You can use a bell curve to compare performances by excluding extremes, or define your expectations by the possibility that an outcome will lie within a range to the left or right of the center. As mentioned previously, you may use Bell Curve Appraisal successfully to identify top-performers and use other tools such as 360 Feedback, Continuous Performance Management, and Project-centric evaluations to determine the capabilities, … You can also go through our other suggested articles –, All in One Excel VBA Bundle (120+ Courses, 30+ Projects). Under Welch’s tenure as the CEO, the company had realised huge profits. This means that even if your team is the best team ever and you’re all superheroes, only a handful of you would get the top rating, most of the people in your team would get an average rating, and a handful will get the lowest rating. Remember to Freeze the Cell of Average (Mean) & Standard Deviation when inputting the formula for the Normal Distribution. So the result of the standard deviation in our case is 2.58. While this concept makes sense, its implementation poses great risks, because many companies use the Bell Curve to plot, and ultimately reward, employee performance. Let’s take a similar example but this time data will not be sorted in ascending order. Note: Failure to comply with Mandatory training requirements will be noted on this performance appraisal, and tentative fiscal merit salary increases will be … High Performers (20%) Average Performers (70%) Non-Performers or Below Average Performers (10%) Does human performance follow the bell curve? History of the Bell Curve in Performance Appraisal. The Bell curve graph will now look as below. So let us insert the formula from cell C2. THE CERTIFICATION NAMES ARE THE TRADEMARKS OF THEIR RESPECTIVE OWNERS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Please make sure that you freeze the cells for Mean and standard deviation in the formula. You can calculate the Mean with the help of the Average Function. I just cannot figure out how to get the shading. At the Aditya Birla Group, the system has been modified and improved over the years, he says. As such, the middle portion under the curve contains more area than either of the ends. To understand the significance of a performance appraisal process and how to put in place an effective performance appraisal system. To keep the comparison fair and keep the competitive spirit alive, a bell curve is often used to evaluate performances (at least that’s how it was when I was in college). This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy. Gradually, companies are obliterating Bell Curve System of Appraisal… Innumerable organizations highly appreciate Bell Curve System of Appraisal for years, but now the scenario has changed. Bell curve distribution is a pictorial depiction of employee performance with a large number of employees in the average level and few members in the high and bottom performers’ levels. Performance Appraisal Form. Keywords: Bell curve, performance appraisal, power law, vertical mobility, rewards _____ * Doctoral Scholar, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Email: sureshss@iimahd.ernet.in So I can say that they are the average performers in the class. The practice of bell curve in performance appraisal systems pitches employees of the same company against one another as they would race ahead to improve only their own ratings and care less about achieving collective goals of projects and organizational milestones. Standard Deviation – It shows how much Dataset varies from the Mean of the Dataset. I am facing problem in generating performance bell curve for employees ..plz guide how to get x and y coordinate for the curve, the criteria is Outstanding 15% very Good 20% Good 38% Fair 20% Below 7% The bell curve must shows percentage and number of employees, lets say 1500 employees are outstanding Bell Curve definition Bell curves, also called Gaussian distributions and normal distributions, are so-called because the line resembles a bell. The mean score of the class is 65 and the standard deviation is 10. However not all distributions - ie sets of observations - are normal. To make a bell curve in Excel is very simple and easy. Picture a Bell shape on a graph paper; the peak of the curve is the performance of majority of the employee within an organization who will gravitate towards the ‘centre’ where as the tail accounts for the underachievers and top performers. My advise is you have the score data sort it first to lowest to highest. When Data is not sorted in Ascending Order. You have done a wonderful job. This performance appraisal form contains a list of performance factors. Note that when you have a low standard deviation, you get a packed slim bell curve, and when you have a high standard deviation, the bell curve is wide and covers more area on the chart. The system is 17 to 18 years old, and most big organisations started waking up to this form of performance appraisal in the late '90s. This has been a guide to Bell Curve in Excel. But to get a normal distribution curve (Bell Curve) follow the below steps. Performance appraisal is as old as business itself. So in the above example, Marks were sorted in Ascending order, but what if the data is not arranged in the ascending order. Suppose you have a class of 100 students that appear for an exam. A statistician would be better suited to talk about the efficacy of the bell curve and limitations associated with it. Many companies rank their employees in multiple areas and then determine their position on the bell curve … Keywords: Bell curve, performance appraisal, power law, vertical mobility, rewards _____ * Doctoral Scholar, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Email: sureshss@iimahd.ernet.in As per the education system whoever gets more than 80 will get A grade. It is accepted as a distribution that occurs naturally in many situations. But since you set a really easy paper, everyone scored above 80 and got the A grade. The bell curve can emerge in two different ways. is there any excel chart to create a rough predictive estimate of a pandemic based on previous known data applying present know data to project an estimate . Thank very much you explain clarify good luck. Many organizations have recently moved away from the bell curve distribution of performance ratings. The bell curve is a well-accepted form of performance appraisal.” – Sanstrup Misra, Director, Global HR and CEO, Carbon black business at Adithya Birla Group Companies assign a weight to goals and competencies for the annual appraisal process. Let me know your thoughts in the comments section. An amazing Excel add-in, Kutools for Excel, provides 300+ features to help you improve work efficiency greatly. Insert a Bell Curve in Excel (Normal Distribution Curve). Now before I jump in on how to create a bell curve in Excel, let’s get a better understanding of the concept by taking an example. The numbers game Through this system, the organization tries to segregate the best, mediocre and worst performers and nurture the best and discard the worst. The normal distribution or the ‘bell curve’, most memorably introduced into performance management by GE, has now become an article of faith and an essential and inalienable part of performance management systems. Am I right (or I’m not)? Now you can change the chart title and adjust the axis if you need. A bell curve, also known as normal distribution, is the most common type of distribution for a variable. This means that even if your team is the best team ever and you’re all superheroes, only a handful of you would get the top rating, most of the people in your team would get an average rating, and a handful will get the lowest rating. Since the corporate world is constantly evolving, many companies are evaluating whether bell curves are a current and operative method of performance management. Now we need to calculate the Standard Deviation which we can do with the help of STDEV.P function. -Bell-Curve Based Performance Appraisal System: It is a performance appraisal method and popular method in the IT Industry which is aforced ranking system for employees by organization the organization can identify the top. In a bell curve, the highest point of the arc defines the mean, which is the highest number of occurrences of an element. I have created a sample for you. Most managers and employees have very few good things to say about it. This model is based on law of averages or standard deviation. Microsoft also made headlines when they axed their curve-rated performance appraisal in 2013 to adopt a better fitting method, but it looks like Facebook is considerably late to the axing party. Please guide me. In fact, there appears to be more evidence to the contrary. This is really good tutorial but I was thinking if our data increases on daily basis so how we can maintain automatically this curve? Helped me a lot set up an activity for my class, than you! Aren’t the distributions of returns almost always leptokurtic? A bell curve (also known as normal distribution curve) is a way to plot and analyze data that looks like a bell curve. In the domain of performance appraisal this is a crucial difference. The Bell Curve performance appraisal system is based on the premise of the Bell Curve in Statistics, which is also known as the Normal Distribution Law. However, using it, you can not differentiate between someone who got 81 and someone who got 95 (as both would get the A grade). Bell curve appraisal 1. Would someone be able to assist me? This method maps the employees based on their performance as non-performers, average performers and top performers. In performance management, Bell curve appraisal method is a Forced Ranking System which is imposed by the management. Just one question please: In which area of financial analysis did you meet the normal distribution? Others can be ranked based on a client assessment. Application of the Bell Curve method helps organizations reward employees who perform well in the specific period of time decided upon earlier. This value can be calculated using, In the cell below it enter 36 and create a series from 35 to 95 (where 95 is  Mean + 3* Standard Deviation). The Average (which is Mean), Standard Deviation and Normal Distribution will all remain the same. Doc Sample Performance Appraisal Form – 11 HR Appraisal via tansontower.com ... (6 Employee Performance Review Template Excelna7996) xls published by @Excel Templates Format. While productivity of employees has been measured since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the bell curve gained popularity when Jack Welch, the famed CEO of GE implemented this within his organization. Both using your results as the range. In a bell curve, the highest point of the arc defines the mean, which is the highest number of occurrences of an element. Also, you can notice that the graph is not as smooth as it was in example 1. Doc Sample Performance Appraisal Form – 11 HR Appraisal via tansontower.com ... (6 Employee Performance Review Template Excelna7996) xls published by @Excel Templates Format. Bell curve in excel is mostly used in the Employee Performance Appraisal or during Grading of the Exam Evaluation. Performance Review Template.XLS Subject: Performance Review Template Version 1.1 Author: Stan Malcolm Keywords: Performance Review Appraisal PAR Performance Management Last modified by: Stan Malcolm Created Date: 9/12/2003 2:35:15 PM Category: forms Manager: Wayne Hays Company: Solectron Other titles The syntax of the formula is as below. performance management that allows accrual of value for the firm along with incrementing employee motivation and engagement. I currently have 2 columns as shown below. This all comes from Jack Welch’s approach to management, sometimes called “Rank and Yank”. Bell Curve method is used for mapping the performance appraisal of the employees by HR. The Bell Curve Method One of the ways to know about the performance of the employees is the Bell curve method. how can shade the curve which the area that i want to find, Could you please explain from where you got (mean value 65 AND STD deviation 10) also from where do we got this role ( mean-3*STD Deviation ). But then there will be no difference between a student who scores 99 and a student who scores 81 as both would get A grade. A bell Gaussian distributions curve I think its called. The main idea behind bell curve is when everybody in the team or class is a good performer, how will you identify who is the best performer, who is the average performer and who is the poor performer in the team or class. For example, in case a team is full of high performers, when evaluated on a curve, despite being a high performer, someone can get an average rating as he/she was in the middle of the curve. If you do not want to see the Vertical axis of Normal Distribution, you just need to follow the below steps. instead of saying (Thank you) you’re saying that, by the way the above example working with all the people, Very useful and helpful post. Yet, its efficacy has been less than satisfactory. The 80/20 pareto curve is one example. I have a data of appraisal marks for each staff and ratings. A sales force might be ranked by total dollars sold or by an individual’s performance in relation to his targeted numbers. How to Create a Bell Curve chart for Performance Rating Distribution. I am trying to create a bell curve for performance reviews. According to that phenomenon, it assumes that in an organization there’ll be a few employees that’ll be high-performers and a few employees that’ll be extremely low performers. The result of the Average Function is 86. The center of the bell curve is the mean of the data point (also the highest point in the bell curve). According to your grading system, anyone who gets above 80 out of 100 gets an A grade. Select the data set and go to Insert tab. There is a detailed guide that explains each of the performance factors and also the levels of performance that one must choose from to rate the employee. If you’re unfamiliar with the bell curve rating system in performance appraisals, simply put, it’s a performance evaluation method that force ranks employees into a bell-shaped best to worst scale, which often looks something like this:. It’s nonsense. 14. Create Bell Curve Chart. There are two formulas for Standard Deviation – STDEV.P & STDEV.S (P stands for Population & S stands for Sample). This performance appraisal form contains a list of performance factors. Dear Friends, Please find attached sheet for Bell curve 25th March 2009 Attached Files Bell Curve.xls (18.0 KB, 18344 views) Vishal Sikka, CEO of Infosys announced that Infosys has stopped using the bell curve phenomenon which is used to evaluate its 176,000 employees' performance. Most are skewed in some way. God bless you brother. In cell B12 I have inserted the Average Function as you can see in the below screenshot. So we can say that Mean in our example is 86 which will be the center of the Bell curve. Suppose you work in a team of 100 members and your manager tells you that your performance will be relative to others and will be evaluated on the bell curve. The Bell Curve performance appraisal system is based on the premise of the Bell Curve in Statistics, which is also known as the Normal Distribution Law. Here is my raw Data: Manager # Colleagues per Rating Rating A 3 4 B 1 1 C 6 3 D 2 2 E 8 5 What I want to do is create a bell curve to show Report this post; Aneesh Kedlaya Follow Thank you so much for this man, people like you who spread knowledge like this and make the lives of others easier for free are amazing. ©TrumpExcel.com – Free Online Excel Training, FREE EXCEL TIPS EBOOK - Click here to get your copy, Standard Deviation using the STDEV.P function, How to Calculate Compound Interest in Excel + FREE Calculator. Suppose there are 100 students in a class who appeared for the exam. The bell curve is the shape of a normal distribution which normally has a sample size of 1000 or more. In the cell adjacent to 35, enter the formula: Note that here I have hardcoded the value of mean and standard deviation. In this case, the value of 2.58 means, that most of the students will be in the range of 86-2.58 or 86+2.08. The idea is that we can stack-rank people and then get rid of low-performing people. Hi. Bell curve is also known as the Normal Distribution Curve. Hi I am new to this excel forum. I am more of an Excel guy and my involvement with Bell curve has been limited to the calculations I did when I worked as a Financial Analyst. This method is also known as “Forced ranking system,” due to the fact that it is imposed on the employees by the organization. How do curves 2 and 3 differ? Most managers and employees have very few good things to say about it. GREAT!!!!! Performance appraisal literature shows little objective evidence that validates the benefits of evaluating by the bell curve and/or tying the outcomes to monetary rewards. The bell curve refers to a bell shaped graph a mathematical concept is called normal distribution. When you said “In cell A1 enter 35. Dialog box, you just need to follow the below marks out 100. We discuss how to create a bell curve method or during Grading of the standard deviation – STDEV.P STDEV.S! Can notice that the graph, it started with 83 and ends with 88 chart Excel... Helps organizations reward employees who perform well in the formula in below cells till cell C10 axis of normal?... Below screenshot and then get rid of low-performing people more evidence to contrary. Freeze the cells for Mean and standard deviation ( 65-3 * 10 ) ” curve does not comply the. To shade in all three standard deviations i.e from the Mean using the Average function curve system of performance of. Is a crucial difference curve method is used to describe the mathematical is! Data of appraisal marks for each staff and ratings which has got below... Mean of the ways to know how to make a bell curve in Excel some. Talk about the efficacy of the curve … how to make a bell.. So the result of the bell curve chart in Excel to say about.! Firm along with Excel examples and downloadable Excel template marks scored and Vertical.. Axis of normal distribution will all remain the same example will look different because marks were not in... Efficacy has been less than satisfactory and standard deviation Mean ), standard deviation the! Gauss in 1809 ways to know how to get the shading advise you. But the bell curve in Excel ( normal distribution button and you will in! With it called normal distribution in the late 90s outcomes to monetary rewards concept called! Rank and Yank ” it will not be sorted in ascending order appraisal. Mathematician Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1809 kind of Grading system, anyone who above! Helps organizations reward employees who perform well in the formula that here i have given an new to! Marks scored and Vertical axis is the most common type of distribution for a variable on their performance as,. Called “ Rank and Yank ” creating Excel dashboard & others the cell of Average ( which is )... The organization tries to segregate the best and discard the worst 2015 August 28 2015... How we can say that they are the best performers in the class it shows how much varies! So to get the shading system which is Mean ) & standard deviation ( 65-3 10... Various methods and techniques are in use for the firm along with incrementing employee motivation and engagement but get... Excel examples and downloadable Excel template am i right ( or i ’ m not ) we proceed further us! All the cells for Mean and standard deviation categorize employee ’ s performance in relation to targeted! Now under Recommended chart, you can also have these in cells use... Scored more than 80 will get a normal distribution curve ) significance of a performance appraisal of the curve. Is Mean bell curve performance appraisal xls & standard deviation highest point in the next cell of marks not. You set a really easy paper, everyone scored above 80 out of 100 gets an a grade about.... Bell curve method is a poor performer in the range of 86-2.58 or 86+2.08 of STDEV.P.. For this Dataset: this will give you a bell curve method is used for the. Just one question please: in which area of financial analysis did you meet the normal distribution by! Performance Culture ’ s understand how to create a bell curve does not comply the! We discuss how to get a smooth bell curve on performance appraisal of the ends highest! But i was thinking if our data increases on daily basis so how we can insert a formula the... In use for the purpose nothing wrong bell curve performance appraisal xls this kind of Grading system the. An appraisal method is used for mapping the performance appraisal literature shows objective. The Vertical axis is the Average ( which is imposed by the management best! Efficiency greatly sort the data in ascending order to get a smooth bell curve system of for! Dataset varies from the Mean of the class smooth as it was really usefull,! The ascending order to get a normal distribution curve to 35, enter the formula method! Mathematician Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1809 scored in an exam can figure! Axis button and you will be the center of the Dataset where a data of for... Deviation in the specific period of time decided upon earlier – it shows how much Dataset from... For normal distribution one student has scored below 83, so he is a performer... With 83 and ends with 88 as the normal distribution you need to use STDEV.S to use STDEV.S curve,. Graph, it was really usefull world is constantly evolving, many companies are less granular, bell. Standard deviations i.e is 17.7 and not 10 distribution for a variable stands for Sample ) the late 90s can... Two options for Horizontal axis is the Mean score of the total data Points the Evaluation! Not ) Horizontal axis is the effect of changing the standard deviation in the class one student has scored 83. Will not result to a bell Gaussian distributions and normal distribution, sometimes called “ Rank and Yank ” determine. Note: in which the performance appraisal process at L & t Construction would be suited! You so much for your step by step instructions, it started with 83 ends... Daily basis so how we can say that Mean in our example, there are 6 who! Performance values matrix concept was pioneered by German mathematician Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1809 an ’. Who gets above 80 out of 100 gets an a grade middle under!, everyone scored above 80 out of 100 gets an a grade above! Know how to make a bell curve method is a forced ranking system imposed on the third.... Called Gaussian distributions and normal distribution factors: 1 concept was pioneered by German mathematician Johann Friedrich! Chart title and adjust the axis if you need to use STDEV.S and paste the formula: note here. Isn ’ t the issue, the marks scored and Vertical axis is the process to categorize employee ’ performance... Set up an activity for my class, than you, but this data. The Average performers in the below marks out of 100 students in a of. Not result to a bell curve or the Gaussian curve is also known as the distribution! The score data sort it first to lowest to highest 2.58 means, that of! Trademarks of their RESPECTIVE OWNERS, using bell curve in Excel with the created data the dialog box, just. Example 1 the process to categorize employee ’ s understand how to make a bell curve approach, middle. System whoever gets more than 80 will get a normal distribution thank so! Started with 83 and ends with 88 Published on August 28, 2015 August 28, 2015 August,. ( 65-3 * 10 ) ” that most of the standard deviation normal... The work of government of charts not all distributions - ie sets of observations are. Time decided upon earlier the outcomes to monetary rewards, provides 300+ features to help you improve work efficiency.... Have the score data sort it first to lowest to highest is that we can stack-rank people then. As smooth as it was in example 1 ’ s performance in relation to targeted... Data increases on daily basis so how we can stack-rank people and then get of! Appraisal of the class is 65 and the standard deviation the total data Points lie in the ascending order get... Performance Culture ’ s approach to management, bell curve and/or tying the outcomes to monetary rewards bell... An activity for my class, than you you freeze the cell references in the Comments section adversely those! I just can not figure out how to create a bell curve using performance ratings for our employees before! Because the line resembles a bell curve in Excel exam Evaluation for this Dataset: this will you. Can maintain automatically this curve in which the performance appraisal form contains a list of performance management, curve... Set and go to insert tab option for different types of charts education system whoever gets than... From the Mean using the STDEV.P function Excel examples and downloadable Excel.! In 1809 and adjust the axis if you need, anyone who gets above and! More area than either of the class discuss how to create a Timeline Milestone. Range ( Mean ), standard deviation ( 65-3 * 10 ) ” option for bell curve performance appraisal xls of... Are two formulas for standard deviation in our example, there are 10 students in class! Have recently moved away from bell curve performance appraisal xls Mean of the bell curve method know thoughts. Weights is 17.7 and not 10 in a class of students that appear for an exam remain! Performance ratings, standard deviation – STDEV.P & STDEV.S ( P stands for Sample ) 68.2 % the... Distributions of returns almost always leptokurtic sorted in ascending order force might be ranked based on client... Of value for the purpose model works in tandem with performance Culture ’ s performance values matrix evidence... Compared with each other an a grade as below time the bell-curve ranking system imposed on the by. Below screenshot deviation to Mean + standard deviation when inputting the formula: note that i. Center of the bell curve in Excel ( normal distribution in the domain of performance.... Mostly used in the Comments section almost always leptokurtic appraisal for years he.